Dr. Gray, so we heard Gina had spotting. Dr. Greer has mentioned about spotting. So that's an early sign. Certainly there are women listening who have had that. Now, I don't mean to make them worry unnecessarily, but maybe you can give us some further guidance on when this needs to be investigated further, what you would recommend.
Well, certainly women that have gone through menopause, so they've had complete cessation or stopping of their menstrual periods for six months to a year, who then beyond that develop any spotting really need to go to their either general practitioner or internal medicine or gynecologist to tell them about the symptoms. The work-up from there, as Dr. Greer had mentioned, is usually of course doing an exam at the time as well as an ultrasound to look at the lining of the uterus as well as potentially a biopsy or a biopsy at the time that you're in the office. As Gina mentioned, doing the biopsy is a fairly straightforward procedure that can be done in the office with minimal discomfort.
Okay. Now, Dr. Greer, Gina mentioned about listening to her own body, doing her on investigation. Dr. Greer endorsed that. What would you say to women listening to women who maybe just don't feel right. They're worried, and maybe the physician, first physician they visited said, Oh, it's nothing, don't worry, and, no, we don't need to look further. Or We got this test result back and it's not a big deal. I mean at some point you have to say, Well, am I overreacting, but at another point you say, Well, I'm still really worried and it could be something life threatening.
Well, I think absolutely getting a second opinion is critical. If you feel like there's something going on but you're not getting an adequate answer to from your first practitioner, find someone else or speak to someone else. I have numerous patients who have had the story that Gina has had where someone just told them it's all, you know, okay, don't worry about it, when really it's not all okay. I don't want to frighten anyone. Many times spotting after menopause isn't cancer, however it's important to really make sure that it isn't by doing additional studies and tests.